Human Factors (HF)/Human Systems Integration (HSI) Literature and websites

Karwowski, W. (2012). A review of human factors challenges of complex adaptive systems: Discovering and understanding chaos in human performance. Human Factors, 54(6), 983-995. doi:10.1177/0018720812467459

Johnston, J. H., Fiore, S. M., Paris, C., & Smith, C. P. (2013). Application of cognitive load theory to develop a measure of team cognitive efficiency. Military Psychology, 25(3), 252-265. doi:10.1037/h0094967

Bellenkes, A., & Tidball, B. (2008). Review of 'Aircraft system safety: Military and civil aeronautical applications.’ Ergonomics, 51(7), 1122-1124. doi:10.1080/00140130701680619

R. Pew & A. Mavor. (Eds). (2007). Human System Integration in the System Development Process: A New Look. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.

Volpe Center Human Factors website: http://

Wickens, C. M., Toplak, M. E., & Wiesenthal, D. L. (2008). Cognitive failures as predictors of driving errors, lapses, and violations. Accident Analysis And Prevention, 40(3), 1223-1233. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2008.01.006

SKYbrary. An electronic repository (wiki) of safety knowledge related to flight operations, air traffic management (ATM) and aviation safety in general. Note the Human Performance tab. Link

Human Factors in Rail Operations 

The FRA eLibrary has a series of useful technical reports that are available by seaching for "human factors." Two provide particularly valuable information on cognition and attention: 

Roth, E., Rosenhand, H., & Miller, J. (2013). Using Cognitive Task Analysis to Inform Issues in Human Systems Integration in Railroad Operations. DOT/FRA/ORD-13/31. Federal Railroad Administration. Department of Transportation. Washington, DC.

Roth, E. & Multer, J. (2007). Technology Implications of a Cognitive Task Analysis for Locomotive Engineers. DOT/FRA/ORD-09/03. Federal Railroad Administration. Department of Transportation. Washington, DC.

Other rail-related publications on cognitive workload and attention include:

Johnsen, S. O., & Veen, M. (2013). Risk assesment and resilience of critical communication infrastructure in railways. Cognition, Technology & Work, 15(1), 95-107. doi:10.1007/s10111-011-0187-2

Pickup, L., Wilson, J. R., Sharpies, S., Norris, B., Clarke, T., & Young, M. S. (2005). Fundamental examination of mental workload in the rail industry. Theoretical Issues In Ergonomics Science, 6(6), 463-482. doi:10.1080/14639220500078021

Reinach, S., & Viale, A. (2006). Application of a human error framework to conduct train accident/incident investigations. Accident Analysis And Prevention, 38(2), 396-406. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2005.10.013

Roth, E. M., Multer, J., & Raslear, T. (2006). Shared Situation Awareness as a Contributor to High Reliability Performance in Railroad Operations. Organization Studies, 27(7), 967-987. doi:10.1177/0170840606065705

Salmon, P. M., Read, G. M., Stanton, N. A., & Lenné, M. G. (2013). The crash at Kerang: Investigating systemic and psychological factors leading to unintentional non-compliance at rail level crossings. Accident Analysis And Prevention, 501278-1288. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2012.09.029

Weyman, A., O'Hara, R., & Jackson, A. (2005). Investigation into issues of passenger egress in Ladbroke Grove rail disaster. Applied Ergonomics, 36(6), 739-748. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2005.05.010

Wilson, J., & Norris, B. (2005). Special issue on rail human factors. Applied Ergonomics, 36(6), 647-648. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2005.08.002

 Attention and Distraction 

Barr, L., Yang, C.,Hanowski, R., Olson, R. (2011). Assessment of driver drowsiness, distraction,
and performance in a naturalistic setting. United States. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. URL:

Endsley, M. R. (1995). Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems.  Human Factors, 37, pp. 85-104. 

FMCSA (2010). Distraction in commercial trucks and buses: Assessing prevalence and risk in
conjunction with crashes and near-crashes. U.S. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. URL:

Grier, R. A., Warm, J., Dember, W. N., Matthews, G., Galinsky, T. L., Szalma, J. L., & Parasuraman, R. (2003). The vigilance decrement reflects limitations in effortful attention, not mindlessness. Human Factors, 45, 349-359.

Horrey, W. J., Wickens, C. D., & Consalus, K. P. (2006). Modeling drivers' visual attention allocation while interacting with in-vehicle technologies. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12(2), 67-78. doi:10.1037/1076-898X.12.2.67

Lani, C., & Wickens, C. D. (2007). Factors affecting task management in aviation. Human Factors, 49(1), 16-24. doi:10.1518/001872007779598118

Matthews, G., Desmond, P.A., Neubauer, C., & Hancock, P.A. (Eds.) (2012). Handbook of operator fatigue. Aldershot, UK.: Ashgate Publishing.

O’Donnell, R. D., & Eggemeier, F. T. (1986).  Workload assessment methodology.  In K. Boff, L. Kaufman, & J. Thomas (Eds.) Handbook of perception and performance (Vol. 2). New York: Wiley.

Olson, R., Hanowski, R., Hickman, J., & Bocanegra, J. (2009). Driver distraction in commercial
vehicle operations. United States Federal Motor Carrier Safety AdministrationU RL: 042.pdf

Schriver, A. T., Morrow, D. G., Wickens, C. D., & Talleur, D. A. (2008). Expertise differences in attentional strategies related to pilot decision making. Human Factors, 50(6), 864-878. doi:10.1518/001872008X374974

Tsang, P.S. & Vidulich, M.A. (2002). Human factors in transportation: Principles and practice
of aviation psychology. CRC Press.

Warm, J., & Dember, W. N. (1998).  Tests of a vigilance taxonomy.  In R.R. Hoffman, M.F. Sherrick, & J.S. Warm (Eds.), Viewing psychology as a whole:  The integrative science of William N. Dember.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association. 

Wickens, C. D. (2002). Situation awareness and workload in aviation. Current Directions In Psychological Science, 11(4), 128-133. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00184

Wickens, C. D., Gordon-Becker, S., Liu, Y., & Lee, J.D., (2003). Introduction to Human Factors
Engineering (2nd Ed). Pearson.

Wickens, C.D., Hollands, J.G., Parasuraman, R., & Banbury, S. (2012). Engineering psychology
& Human Performance (4th Ed). Pearson.

Wickens, C. D. (2002). Multiple resources and performance prediction. Theoretical Issues in
Ergonomics Science, 3, 159-177.

Young, K., & Regan, M. (2007). Driver distraction: A review of the literature. In I.J. Faulks, M., Regan, M. Stevenson, J. Brown, A. Porter & J. D. Irwin (Eds.), Distracted driving (pp. 379-405). Sydney, NSW: Australasian College of Road Safety.